Swift Style Guide


When accessing an optional value, use optional chaining if the value is only accessed once or if there are many optionals in the chain.


Use if let binding to avoid force unwrapping (!) or repeated access of the same optional value.

if let address = address {
    print("\(address.street), \(address.city), \(address.state) \(address.zip) )

Use guard for functions that should exit early for a nil value or if the if let optional binding would produce a pyramid of doom (nested optional binding).

function centerMap(to location: CLLocation?) {
    guard let location = location else { return }

Use of self

Reference self only when required to differentiate between property names and arguments in initializers, and when referencing properties in closure expressions.

class Position {
  let row: Int, column: Int

  init(row: Int, column: Int) {
    self.row = row
    self.column = column

    loadData { 
       print("Finished loading x: \(self.row) y: \(self.column) position") 

Protocol Conformance

When implementing protocol conformance, prefer adding a separate extension for the methods. This keeps the related methods grouped together.

class MyViewcontroller: UIViewController {
  // class stuff here

extension MyViewcontroller: UITableViewDataSource {
  // table view data source methods

extension MyViewcontroller: UIScrollViewDelegate {
  // scroll view delegate methods


Use trailing closure syntax wherever possible.

URLSession.shared.dataTask(with: URL) { (data, response, error) in

It is acceptable to use shorthand argument names such as $0 if the closure is one line and readability is maintained.

reversedNames = names.sorted { $0 > $1 }

Use a typealias when closures are referenced in multiple places.

typealias CompletionHandler = (Int) -> Bool

When referencing self in an async closure it is possible to create an unintended retain cycle. Use [weak self] then “strongify” inside the closure

APIClient.fetch { [weak self] result in
  guard let `self` = self else { return }



// MARK: Types and naming

// Types begin with a capital letter
struct User {
  let name: String

  // if the first letter of an acronym is lowercase, the entire thing should
  // be lowercase
  let json: Any

  // if the first letter of an acronym is uppercase, the entire thing should
  // be uppercase
  static func decode(from json: JSON) -> User {
    return User(json: json)

// Use () for void arguments and Void for void return types
let f: () -> Void = { }

// Use typealias when closures are referenced in multiple places
typealias Callback = (Int) -> Bool

class MyViewController: UIViewController {
  // Prefer strong IBOutlet references
  @IBOutlet var button: UIButton!

  // Declare variables/constants using type interference instead of explicit 
  // type decalarations when appropriate
  var subtitle = ""

  // Define arrays and dictionaries using the type
  var users: [User] = []

// MARK: Organization

// Use an extension for group methods for protocol conformance
extension MyViewController: UITableView {
  func numberOfSections(in tableView: UITableView) -> Int {

  func tableView(_ tableView: UITableView, numberOfRowsInSection section: Int) -> Int {

  func tableView(_ tableView: UITableView, 
      cellForRowAt indexPath: IndexPath) -> UITableViewCell {

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